Ethics: the good, the bad and the ugly

The BBC defines ethics as ‘a system of moral principles, affecting how people make their decision and lead their lives,’ and put simply, the way in which we determine what is good and what is bad. Ethics are particularly relevant to the media, especially with journalists (professional, free-lance or amateur) being a prominent presence in areas of conflict. Ethics are important to ensure that we as a society understand what is acceptable and adhere to those standards to ensure peace and understanding. If only it were that simple.

If Dumbledore says it, it must be right
If Dumbledore says it, it must be right

A significant problem associated with ethics are their subjectivity. Standards of ethics depend on various different factors such as; ‘discipline, political system, legal system, religious/social system, research content, setting/institution and time in history’ (McCutcheon, 2015). Factoring in these aspects,  an act that appears ethical and good to one person, may be bad and unethical to another. A recent example of how media ethics are not universal and can be misunderstood is the imprisonment of Al Jazeera staff in December of 2013.

Greste, along with two other Al Jazeera staff, were arrested in Cairo, Egypt for ‘broadcasting news which was damaging to national security by meeting with recently declared terrorist group, The Muslim Brotherhood’ (BBC, 2013). To the Egyptian government, their work was completely unethical. Illegally meeting with a terrorist group which was interpreted as ‘damaging.’ Whereas the Al Jazeera staff were looking to uncover the truth in a conflict ridden area. A movement to free Peter Greste with the slogan ‘telling the truth is not terrorism,’ and the hashtag of FreeAJStaff went viral, however in this case the Egyptian court viewed the ‘truth’ as terrorism.

Free AJ staff

The Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance Journalist’ Code of Ethics states standards to do with accuracy and honesty to upkeep image and credibility. The first standard is ‘report and interpret honestly, do not suppress relevant available facts.’ This guideline can be interpreted in various ways such as; Peter Greste and the Al Jazeera staff were trying to uncover the truth and did nothing wrong, or, the facts and information were not readily available and breached this code of ethics, or violated the political ethics of their host country, Egypt and thus their imprisonment is justified.

A problem with media ethics is that there are no ‘fixed right answers’ (Gordon, 1996). For example, the code of ethics mentioned above are are similar yet different to the Al Jazeera code of ethics, which are different to the Telegraph’s code of conduct. With all these different ethical codes, how are we supposed to know what is right or wrong? Ethical or unethical?

We need ethics to get by in life as smoothly as possible, but we cannot impose our personal ethics on others and must understand that ethics are subjective from people, institutions and countries.

Further Information 

Controversies with journalism ethics can be seen in many media stories;

Julian Asange and WikiLeaks.

References

BBC, 2013 Egypt Crisis: Al Jazeera journalists arrested in Cairo, http://Http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25546389, accessed 29 March 2015

Gordon, D., Kittross, J.M., Reuss, C. & Merrill, J.C. 1996,Controversies in media ethics, Longman, White Plains, N.Y.

McCutcheon, M. 2015 Research Ethics, BCM210, University of Wollongong, accessed 29 March 2015

Ward, S.J.A. 2013, Global Media Ethics: Problems and Perspectives, Wiley-Blackwell, GB.

The Dark Side of Orientalism

Whilst we find ourselves singing along to one of Katy Perry’s latest songs ‘Dark Horse,’ captivated by the glitz and glamour of her art-pop ode to an Egyptian deity, there are deep-rooted problems of Orientalism which must be addressed.

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Edward Said was a Palestinian/American theorist (Osborne, 2001), and coined the term Orientalism which he defines as ‘Anyone who teaches, writes about, or researches the Orient’ (Evans, 2015). The Orient in this case, loosely applies to The Middle East (Egypt, Turkey, Libya), The Near East (Greece, Balkans) and the Far East (China, Japan) (Evans, 2015). My understanding of Orientalism put simply is, ‘the pre determined ways in which we think about the Orient which are sometimes limiting to our actual understanding of the true Orient.’ Orientalism is directly linked to colonialism. When European explorers traveled to the Orient, they brought back with them exaggerated and distorted paintings, depicting the Orient as ‘uncivilised, barbaric, spiritual, undeveloped’ (Evans, 2015). These distorted depictions were then used as a way for European empires to get away with colonisation, because after all, they were going to bring civilisation to these people.

Now, you might be wondering what any of this has to do with Katy Perry and Pop music. Well actually quite a lot. You see, based on these distorted depictions of the Orient, especially the Middle East that occurred during colonisation, the rest of the world’s perceptions of the Arab World and it’s people being distorted. Stemming from early reports in 1908 from a supposedly trusted, Lord Cromer who stated ‘untruthfulness, is in fact, the main characteristic of the Oriental mind’ (Evans, 2015), whilst living and writing about modern Egypt. One google news search of the word ‘muslim’ or ‘arab’ brings up an array of negative words such as terrorist, anti-muslim, ISIS, violence… the list goes on. And why? Because these negative stereotypes and Western control are continually perpetuated through the mass media.

Left: Egyptian woman painted by the Victorians Right: Katy Perry channeling Egyptian woman
Left: Egyptian woman painted by the Victorians
Right: Katy Perry channeling Egyptian woman

And bring in Katy Perry. Whether intentionally or not, her video clip for Dark Horse is religiously and culturally insensitive and plays on Orientalist views of portraying the ‘East’, in this case Egyptians as, traditional, uncivilised, spiritual and undeveloped. The worst part is that the video clip is completely unrelated to the song itself. Katy Perry, just like many other Hollywood celebrities (Rihanna, Nicki Minaj, Rita Ora, Gwen Stefani), indulge in cultural appropriation, where they selectively borrow certain traits from a culture and use it to fit their agendas (Nittle, n.d), which if appropriated with respect, is acceptable. However, exploiting cultural traits from a whole nation and misrepresenting, it’s people, it’s history, it’s struggles and it’s stories into a costume and a 3 minute song is not.

Whilst I acknowledge that we’re not going to see a dramatic change in the music industry overnight of pop stars appropriately adapting cultural traits, it is something that we as consumers must be aware of. To challenge our own perspectives and question why we have these views of people. Instead of judging people based off of pop culture and Orientalist outlook, getting to know a person for who they are and not how the media represents them.

*

The video below discusses Orientalism and it’s relationship with music. Skip to 10min30secs and you will see Mr Sheppard look at Katy Perry and her Orientalist approach to music and performance.

– See 10:33

Further Readings

References

Evans, N 2015, East vs. West: Orientalism, BCM232, University of Wollongong, http://Https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/pluginfile.php/386301/mod_resource/content/1/orientalism15.pdf, accessed 27 March 2015

Nittle, N n.d, What is cultural appropriation and why is it wrong?, About News, http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/fl/What-Is-Cultural-Appropriation-and-Why-Is-It-Wrong.htm, accessed 28 March 2015

Osborne, R 2001, “Orientalism” in SAGE Publications Ltd, London, http://ey9ff7jb6l.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book&rft.genre=book%20item&rft.title=Megawords%3A+200+Terms+You+Really+Need+to+Know&rft.au=Richard+Osborne&rft.atitle=Orientalism&rft.date=2001-01-01&rft.pub=SAGE+Publications+Ltd&rft.isbn=9780761974741&rft_id=info:doi/10.4135%2F9781446221532.n160&rft.externalDocID=10_4135_9781446221532_n160&paramdict=en-US, accessed 27 March 2015

Maps and Political Propaganda

Now that we’re challenging out preconceived ideas of a world map and the world itself, let’s shake it up further with this image.

McArthur's Universal Corrective Map http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/2/maps-cartographycolonialismnortheurocentricglobe.html
McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World
http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/2/maps-cartographycolonialismnortheurocentricglobe.html

One glance at this image our brain registers it is a world map, but why does it leave us with an uneasy and unsatisfied feeling? A simple act of flipping the world Mercator map that we’re all familiar with, not only makes us look twice but also challenges our perception of the world and  why we’ve come to accept a world map the way it is. I’m completely guilty of naively staring and accepting a world map as truth (Monmonier, 2014), studying borders, cities and routes, planning epic adventures… However, recently I’ve come to question if a seemingly innocent map of the world is really that innocent.

Maps are ‘used by powerful elites to satisfy their agenda’ (Evans, 2015),  and these agendas can influence ‘national pride, borders, conquests’ (Monmonier, 2014) and much more. Criticisms of the Mercator world map include its Eurocentrism and disproportionality of countries, which both contribute to a skewed vision of the world. It presents some countries like the United Kingdom and the United State of America as large, dominant and important as they are positioned the top left and middle of the map whereas other countries like Indonesia, Japan and even continental Africa as smaller and less significant due to their positioning underneath America and Europe.

University of Wollongong, biased?
University of Wollongong, biased?

Even a simple case study using the University of Wollongong as seen on Google Maps, demonstrates the relationship between wealth, power and dominance. This is the University where I study and I encourage you to search your university or home town to see which features are most prominent and question why that is so. Why is Panizzi and Out for Lunch but not the Yard or Rush? Why is the Materials Engineering, building 4 shown but not the Communications Centre or the Law Humanities and Arts building not? ‘We map what we want to see, not what is there’ (Evans, 2015).

Searching 'Israel' into Google Maps
Searching ‘Israel’ into Google Maps 2015
PalestineIsraelMap580
Israel/Palestine land from 1946-2000

On a more political note, the conflict between Israel and Palestine clearly demonstrates the use of maps to not only own and control land, but also relates to culture, history and it’s people being erased as well. The decrease of Palestinian land and growth of Israeli land is not purely about land ownership but is directly related colonial issues and political control when the British handed the land to Israel (M.S, 2010).

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‘Palestine’ according to Google Maps

In 2013, Google Maps changed ‘Palestinian territories’ to ‘Palestine,’ however, when typing ‘Palestine’ into Google Maps in 2015, this is the image produced. There is no distinct area that is labelled as ‘Palestine,’ which raises the question of political power and influence a company like Google Maps has over political control (Groll, 2013).

It is important to be aware of maps ability to lie to us and distort our image of the world, countries, ethnicities, nature and people and it is up to us to be vigilant in seeking answers.

Further Readings

http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/2/maps-cartographycolonialismnortheurocentricglobe.html

References

Evans, N. 2015, Mapping the planet, BCM232, University of Wollongong, delivered 17 March 2015

Groll, E. 2013, ‘Israel isn’t happy about Google’s decision to recognise Palestine’, Foreign Policy: Passport, 3 May, accessed 18 March 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/03/israel-isnt-happy-about-googles-decision-to-recognize-palestine/?wp_login_redirect=0

Monmonier, M. 2014, ‘Maps for political propaganda’, How to lie with maps, University of Chicago Press, 10 December

M.S. 2010, ‘The map is not the territories’, The Economist, 14 March, accessed 18 March 2015, http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/03/israel_and_palestine_0

Hide and Seek: Media Research

“Chercher” the French word meaning ‘to seek’ or better well known by all university students across the globe as… research. That thing you do when you’re wanting to buy a new iPhone 6 only to find out that they bend. Or trying to plan your mid session break to Melbourne enticed by art and coffee to discover that there’s no cheap flights during that time. Or even trying to find out what sort of things your crush is into so you can casually bring them up in conversation. Whether it’s asking your friends or Google questions, if you’re trying to ‘find out more information’ (Berger, 2014) about something chances are you’re researching.

sourced from: http://meetville.com/images/quotes/Quotation-Zora-Neale-Hurston-curiosity-research-Meetville-Quotes-95733.jpg
sourced from: http://meetville.com/images/quotes/Quotation-Zora-Neale-Hurston-curiosity-research-Meetville-Quotes-95733.jpg

However, asking if your crush likes watching Walking Dead’ isn’t at all scholarly research.  Scholarly research is a very ‘systematic and objective’ type of poking and prying, which revolves around correctness and truthfulness’ (Berger, 2014). Ultimately uncovering the truth. Something we can hope to obtain through media research, which is all of the above, applied to aspects of the media, covering mass media, social media, print media, radio, cinema, comics etc, and research into these areas can help us identify links between media, culture, society and individuals.

As identified by Strasburger, there is currently not enough media research, meaning that the problem is ‘important enough to bother with’ (Berger, 2014) and with the ‘effects of the media on children and adolescents’ (Strasburger, 2013) more or less unknown, it provides a space where media research can help fill in the blanks and hopefully minimise risk to those who are vulnerable targets of the media.

Sourced from: http://www.uow.edu.au/research/priorities/index.html
Universities like the University of Wollongong put a lot of emphasis on research. Sourced from: http://www.uow.edu.au/research/priorities/index.html

Trying to decide on what area of media research I’d like to participate in is more difficult than deciding which Johnny Depp film is the best… basically impossible. The media broadcasts an amplitude of messages through diverse mediums, from individuals to multinational companies, reaching people and places across the globe and are uniquely interpreted.

I’m increasingly fascinated by social media and its power and influence on individuals. An area in which I’d like to explore further is the role of the media influencing personal relationships, for example meeting people on Tinder and the medium’s effect on the audience’s view of hook-up culture.

Sourced from: http://www.glasbergen.com/wp-content/gallery/marriage/mar82.gif
Sourced from: http://www.glasbergen.com/wp-content/gallery/marriage/mar82.gif

Something else that I am passionate about is equality and feminism. With the Emma Watson speech on feminism last year, it’s a hot topic which has swept the media and I would be interested exploring various aspects of how it’s influenced people. I believe that all of these fields have the potential to be explored on a deeper level because they are increasingly relevant to our society.

As you can see, I’m constantly engaged and interested by many aspects of the media, society, cultures and people. But before I can decide on a topic of interest, I must first do a hell of a lot of research.

xxx A

References

Berger, Arthur A. 2014, ‘What is research?’, in Media and communication research methods : an introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches, 3rd ed., SAGE, Los Angeles, pp. 13-32

Strasburger, V.C. 2013, “Spinal Column: Why Isn’t There More Media Research?”, Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 587-588

Why It’s Not So Easy to Drop Everything to Travel the World

Lately I’ve seen a lot of blogs, posts, quotes, expressions and people saying, ‘just drop everything and go, travel the world!’ Whilst in theory I love the thought of this and wish I could, the bottom line is that there’s many of us squeezing in some time on Facebook before after we finish a double shift, or before a uni lecture to read these posts, and I can assure you that the majority of people would love to be sipping cocktails in Greece or exploring London, rather than do these things. So here’s why it’s not so easy to drop everything to book a one way flight to New York, Tokyo or Moscow.

*On a side note, if anyone out there would like to give me an all expenses holiday, please comment below* 😉

from- http://th02.deviantart.net/fs70/PRE/i/2013/324/4/f/wanderlust_by_apokalyxe-d6uy8j4.jpg
from- http://th02.deviantart.net/fs70/PRE/i/2013/324/4/f/wanderlust_by_apokalyxe-d6uy8j4.jpg

1- I’m Poor – The big factor here… no money. And when I say no money, when I find 20cents on the ground… I get pretty damn excited! Also, everything about international travel is expensive! Do you know how much a one way ticket to London costs? About $1000… and that’s just to get there!

2- I have a job (so that I’m not poor) – In order to fund my coffee addiction, pay for university textbooks and pay for internet, I need to work, and a lot! I really enjoy my job(s) as well, and if I even want to think about booking flights, I’m going to have to work 25 hours a day 8 days a week!

3 – I need to find myself – Whilst travelling the world is a good way to discover a lot about yourself, when you’re home with your family and friends is also a good time to grow as a person. It helps you re-evaluate your views, dreams and ambitions, and may differ from those of the traveller version of you. Also, travelling can be stressful and exhausting, and there really is no bed like YOUR bed.

4- It’s not the right time – Personally, right now would not be the right time to go overseas at all. I need to be here for my family, for my job, my boyfriend, my friends, my commitments, my degree… I have a lot of things going on at the moment. I know that there never seems to be a right time to go on a big overseas adventure, but there are definitely wrong times, and this is one of them.

5- I’m quite happy here for now – My home is pretty damn awesome! I like within a 10 minute drive to over 10 pristine beaches, close to the city, I have friends to go out with, family to have dinner with… AND the best part about having wanderlust at home is that you can discover some pretty incredible places in your own backyard!

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I think the most frustrating thing for me is a combination of these things. I do want to travel and live overseas, but I also have a lot of other goals and ambitions as well. And to work towards achieving those it requires me to have a job, go to university and save my money. I’m trying to keep the bigger picture in mind and work towards achieving all of my goals and not just my one desire of travelling the world. Yes, a part of this frustration is jealousy of my friends and family that seem to be travelling internationally every second month, but I know I’ll get there once I work hard for it.

So what do I do to settle nearly every atom which is jumping up and down with infectious wanderlust?

1- I make (realistic) goals – Making realistic goals is the most important first step towards reaching your desired outcome. For example, there’s only a certain amount of money I can earn in a year and therefore it might take me two years to save the money I need for a trip overseas. By being realistic, they’re actually achievable and you can work hard to reach them. There’s no point setting your goals too high and not achieving them.

2- I plan – Planning makes me feel like I am about to get on a plane in a months time. I read magazines, blogs, newspapers… anything with beautiful photos of cities, mountains and beaches around the world I want to go to.

3- I work (extremely) hard – If I set a goal, I will stick to it. I’ll pick up extra shifts, I might say no to a few nights out, I might cut back on buying my lunch… I do everything in my power to reach that goal and live my dream!

4 – I get there – It may take some time, but I’ll get there, and the gelato in Rome will taste even sweeter!

So internet… PLEASE STOP TELLING ME TO DROP EVERYTHING AND TRAVEL! I’m working on it!

xxx

A

The Things You REALLY Learn at University

University. That big scary thing that you’re expected to go to once you finish school and you want a good job. After deferring my university offer for my amazing Gap year in London, I was really torn between returning to Oz to go to that big scary place or stay in London. And tah-dah, I was university bound. This has honestly been one of the best decisions I’ve ever made! I had my time in London, and now it was time for something equally new and exciting. I’m nearly finished my first year of International Studies/Communication and Media Studies at the incredible University of Wollongong. This year I lived at a college, International House (iHouse) and learnt a lot more than just course content. So these are some of the things to expect when moving into a university college.

University of Wollongong!
University of Wollongong!

You’ll Learn to Love Goon (for those of you not in Australia, goon= cheap, cask wine) – Let’s get the alcoholic part get out of the way first. Us cheap uni students love a good bargain. And with a First Choice Liquor store about 500m away from your doorstep, cradling $12, 36 standard drinks goon… what choice do we really have? Unless you peaked on your eurotrip, then the hangovers just get worse and you start thinking ‘i’m getting too old for this shit.’ (How I Met Your Mother Reference).

giphy

You learn your limits – O Week anyone? You go out a few times a week, spend a few too many days at the beach to suddenly realise that you’re absolutely hammered. And after a few too many hangovers you realise that maybe you should steer clear of tequila. Learning my limits is something I’ve been working on throughout the past two years, and regardless of how many times others tell you ‘don’t do that’ you will never really learn until you experience them for yourself. Which leads into my next point…

You learn about yourself – I know this is incredibly cheesy but hey, who doesn’t love a bit of cheese? You try new things like going to the gym, you learn new things like how to navigate around building 19, you meet new people from across the globe… you put all these pieces together like a jigsaw puzzle, hoping they’ll fit together into the person you want to be. I’m always growing and learning, trying to become a better person and uni definitely helps you put the pieces together.

You can get involved in some pretty awesome stuff – This year, along with some friends of mine, we created the UOW Skydiving Club (I have some other posts here about it). There’s countless opportunities to volunteer, become an activist, help, donate, support towards everything! It’s a great way to meet new and like minded people but also work on things your passionate about and help create positive change in the world.

Singing petitions at uni - Don't Risk the Reef
Singing petitions at uni – Don’t Risk the Reef

You learn how to balance – Literally! I’ve been going to yoga classes regularly for about 3 months and it’s INCREDIBLE!!! I walk out feeling rejuvenated, relaxed, free and like I can accomplish anything. Definitely the best stress relief! And also figuratively balance. At uni you’ve got so many things going on; actual uni work, social life, keeping fit and healthy, watching latest episodes of Walking Dead, sleeping, relaxing, beaching… sometimes it can be a challenge to manage it all. I must admit, sometimes I spend too much time doing all of my assignments being a good uni student and not enough time outside at the beach (OK you got me, I’m always at the beach), but if you surround yourself with like minded people who are as determined to succeed in many aspects like you, you can do it! Making timetables, reducing time on Facebook and monitoring how much time you spend streaming can help you stay organised.

You learn how to become an owl – Literally. You become a little bit older, a little bit wiser and if you go to sleep before midnight and wake up in time for breakfast at 10am… it’s officially a miracle.

You suddenly acquire some really nice clothes – At college this year we’ve had 6 formal-ish events involving open bars and getting dressed up. And of course it calls for a new outfit each time right! And open bar!!! No more goon for a night!

Friends and I on the iHouse Sydney Harbour Cruise!
Friends and I (the far left) on the iHouse Sydney Harbour Cruise!

You’re going to meet people from across the globe – Literally from EVERYWHERE! We even had an Icelandic exchange student here! You learn so much about different cultures and might even find a French boyfriend to help you with your French grammar 😉

You make some pretty amazing friendships – And this is where I get all sentimental but everyone I’ve met at college/uni this year are truly inspiring, unique and driven people. I’m so glad to have you in my life, if we stay friends for this year, the next 3 years or the next 20 years, you’re each as special and dear to me.

So…. first year (nearly) down, 3.5 to go. It’s been a pretty exciting and crazy ride however if this year is anything to go by, I eagerly look forward to it!

xxx A

Some more friends at another fancy event (I'm in the pink dress)
Some more friends at another fancy event (I’m in the pink dress)

Is this really news?

We see it in newspapers, magazines, Facebook, Twitter… News. It’s everywhere. According to the free dictionary, news is defined as, Information about noteworthy recent events or happenings, especially as reported by newspapers, periodicals, radio, or television’ (the free dictionary). Whilst this definition is widely accepted, there are flaws which should be addressed. News is not justified purely by the media, because the media have the ability to skew perspectives, filter information and have biased (especially towards politics). What is important to the media is not necessarily important to us. Secondly, what defines what the general public should and shouldn’t know? This can also be skewed by biased and personal views from the reporter or company which can heavily influence the audiences view. It also fails to recognise the importance of social media in the role of delivering news. News and it’s definition is constantly changing and the following video explains the difficulty in defining and with news. 

This video taken from HBO’s the Newsroom, identifies the change from NEEDING to know information to WANTING to know such as celebrity idolisation. For example, Facebook and news companies like the Sydney Morning Herald ‘reported’ on Kim Kardashian being tackled at Paris Fashion Week. Is this a type of ‘pseudo event?’ Sukhmani Khorana explains that this is where there is no visible news but audiences still expect news to be full (Khorana, 2014). I argue that it is. Whilst the video stresses how Kim Kardashian could’ve been harmed, it’s really just a practical joke.

News has different values which contribute to its newsworthiness.

  • Proximity
  • Relevance
  • Rarity or Continuity
  • Elite References
  • Negativity
  • Composition
  • Personalisation

The Kim Kardashian story plays on Elite References, Negativity and Composition yet hardly makes it newsworthy. It is obvious that this story is satisfying the audiences want and desire to relate and live the life on the one and only Kim Kardashian.

Whilst this story was being run, there are more important events unfolding in the world which can be lost in the pages of a newspaper or newsfeed. At the end of September, a young Al-Jazeera journalist, Abdullah Elshamy, was released from a prison in Egypt for apparently broadcasting false news of Egypt. A problem with these kinds of stories is the lack of follow ups, ‘it’s important that journalists who are serious about covering (stories), need to follow up, they can’t just cover the big moments. It’s important not to take a snapshot but to take a long video of what’s going on’ (Lee-Wright, pp. 1, 2012). Whilst this story did make the news, there are no follow up stories of Mr. Elshamy and his bid to fight for press freedom, where I’m sure we’ll continue to hear from the adventures of the Kardashians.

I believe it is important to question news and its newsworthiness. Also to look elsewhere from our morning paper or Facebook newsfeed and to actively engage in consuming the news to ensure we are finding out about events around the world that don’t necessarily involve Kim Kardashian.

References

Khorana, S. 2014, BCM111, ‘Who Counts in Global Media News Values’, lecture notes, accessed 24/09/2014, University of Wollongong.

Lee-Wright, P 2012, ‘News Values: An Assessment of News Priorities Through a Comparative Analysis of Arab Spring Anniversary Coverage’, JOMEC Journal, University of London

Loveluck, L 2014, The Telegraph, ‘Abdullah Elshamy: ‘Freedom can’t be comprimised’, accessed 03/10/14, http://Http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/11119275/Abdullah-Elshamy-Freedom-cant-be-compromised.html

The Sydney Morning Herald, 2014, The Sydney Morning Herald, ‘Kim Kardashian tackled by Ukranian prankster at Paris Fashion Week’, accessed 02/10/2014, http://Http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/celebrity/kim-kardashian-tackled-by-ukranian-prankster-at-paris-fashion-week-20140926-10masb.html